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Carat refers to the actual weight of the diamond and it is a diamond’s weight that is one of the primary indicators for how rare a diamond may be.
Although the “carat” is directly related to the weight, there is no true reference to the dimensions of the diamond. However, the carat weight can affect the dimension of a diamond. For descriptive purposes, dimension and carat weight, stand independent from each other. A diamond with the exact same perimeter or diameter can have two completely different carat weights strictly based on the way they were cut, depth wise is one example.
The cost per-carat is based on carat weight bracket. The price per carat does not stay the same as the diamond gets heavier in carat weight ranges. A simple explanation would be that a one carat diamond with the same color, clarity and cut will be less expensive than a one and a half or even a two carat diamond. Price per carat is exponential to the carat weight range.